Mangroves, fishponds, and the quest for sustainability
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Aquaculture ranks as a phenomenal success story in global food production. In 1975, when I joined the SEAFDEC/AQD, aquaculture contributed 8% to the overall yield of the world's fish harvest; now it provides more than one-third of the yield of the world's fisheries. Total aquaculture production in 2003 was 54.8 million metric tons, valued at $67.3 billion in U.S. dollars. More than 90% of this output comes from Asia, where aquaculture has its origins. As with land-based agriculture, all of this aquatic food production and economic activity has come with environmental problems and social conflicts.
Primavera, J. H. (2007, July 26). Mangroves, fishponds, and the quest for sustainability. The Philippine Star, pp. B-6, B-7.
fish ponds marine ecologists aquaculture mangroves mangrove conservation environmental effects By catch introduced species diseases parasites pollution environmental impact shrimp culture Pellet feeds poverty alleviation sustainable aquaculture pollutants pathogens water quality biofilters probiotics phytoplankton Herbivorous fish seaweed culture wetlands environmental protection
- The Philippine Star 
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